Prostitutes in sweden

Prostitutes In Sweden Inhaltsverzeichnis

Die Prostitution in Schweden ist seit nicht mehr legal, die Freier unterliegen der Report Purchasing Sexual Services in Sweden and the Netherlands. Legal Regulation and Experiences. An abbreviated English Version. A Report. Zur Beendigung von Prostitution und Menschenhandel für sexuelle Zwecke Siehe: Ekberg, Gunilla S., “The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of. International Comparative Study of Prostitution Policy: Austria and the Netherlands. Appendix 3: The Swedish Sex Purchase Act: Claimed Success and​. Sweden pretends to the world to care for sex workers, but in Sweden criminalized the clients of prostitutes as part of a strategy to „abolish“. to the Evaluation of the Swedish law on prostitution. Welcome to the PRIS homepage!

Prostitutes in sweden

Sweden pretends to the world to care for sex workers, but in Sweden criminalized the clients of prostitutes as part of a strategy to „abolish“. This article analyses expert discourse on prostitution in New Zealand and Sweden using governmentality theory. The article shows that in both. montfort.se 'swedish prostitute' Search, free sex videos.

However, the group has opposed legalization and instead has been pressing for changes to address those unintended consequences.

Haggstrom admits that another consequence is that Swedish men now are more likely to become sex tourists.

Unlike Canada, Sweden does not have an extraterritorial law that allows it to prosecute Swedish offenders for sex crimes committed abroad.

The counselling program for sex buyers — even repeat offenders — is voluntary, not mandatory. Again, Haggstrom says the government is considering changing that.

Also, only Swedish citizens are eligible for government-funded programs aimed at helping them exit the sex trade. Foreigners are referred for help to non-governmental agencies.

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Join the mailing list to receive daily email updates. Join now to receive daily email updates. One group of scholars, politicians, and NGOs made a submission to the Commission on 17 March , arguing that the Government should provide a civil rights remedy to people in prostitution in order to support their exiting the trade.

In support of this, they cited a case [] in which it was held that the law did not provide a woman with a civil right to damage awards from a purchaser in a sexual transaction.

Among this group of thirteen petitioners, were the Swedish Association of Women's Shelters and Young Women's Empowerment Centres [] one of the two national umbrella shelter-organisations , the Social Democrat's Women's Federation S-Kvinnor , and the immigrant-oriented women's shelter Terrafem.

It stated that since the introduction of the ban on buying sex, street prostitution had been halved, and that: "This reduction may be considered to be a direct result of the criminalisation of sex purchases.

It was also found that there had been no overall increase in prostitution in Sweden. The report also acknowledged Internet indoor prostitution as an expanding market, which is more difficult to study and verify than street prostitution, and which, in the last five years, has increased in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; however, it stated, concurring with the NIKK report above , that "the scale of this form of prostitution is more extensive in our neighbouring countries, and there is nothing to indicate that a greater increase in prostitution over the Internet has occurred in Sweden than in these comparable countries.

This indicates that the ban has not led to street prostitution in Sweden shifting arenas to the Internet. It was also noted that there were many limitations to evaluating the situation of prostitution in Sweden, due to the nature of prostitution and trafficking which are "complex and multifaceted social phenomena which partly occur in secret" and the fact that many empirical surveys had limited scope, and different methodologies and purposes.

Sweden's position on prostitution was re-affirmed: "Those who defend prostitution argue that it is possible to differentiate between voluntary and non-voluntary prostitution, that adults should have the right to freely sell and freely purchase sex However, based on a gender equality and human rights perspective, The report was sent to the consultation process, where interested groups were provided with the opportunity to comment on it see below.

Release of the report attracted many initial commentaries in both English [] [] and Swedish. The law's supporters see the report as affirmation, while critics complain it adds nothing since it is not based on empirical research.

They have commented on the lack of methodology and evidence and the failure to adequately consult with prostitutes themselves and have questioned the scientific validity.

They have also raised the question as to whether it should be translated into English only a summary is available to allow a wider examination.

At the time of the release of the report, the Littoringate affair see above was occupying the media, leading people to question the law's purpose and underlying rationale when even government ministers were ignoring it.

However, the debate continues to be very divisive. Some have considered the numbers on street prostitution in Denmark to be over reported, based on a report from the Danish prostitutes' organisation Sexarbejdernes Interesse Organisation SIO.

Other data suggests that any over reporting would not be as large and even if so the number of persons in prostitution in total is many times larger in Denmark than in Sweden and Danish numbers on indoor prostitution were estimated at These numbers were mainly based on advertising, not Reden.

Assuming is the number for outdoor prostitution in Denmark, that only amounts to a fourth of prostitution in Denmark.

Therefore, it seems unlikely that street prostitution could be so significantly lower as SIO claims. However, whatever the numbers, the scientific question is whether this has anything to do with the sex purchase law or, rather, reflects historical patterns and cultural attitudes.

Two researchers stated that they had evidence, based on cross-national data, that the Swedish ban was an effective counter-trafficking tool, [] but this was criticised on methodological grounds by commentators.

The debate moved to the political arena when a government member of parliament, Camilla Lindberg [] Liberal Dalarna and Opposition member Marianne Berg Left Malmö published a bi-partisan article in Expressen , stating that the law did not protect women, but rather, hurt them, by reinforcing patriarchal attitudes towards women's control of their sexuality.

In the United Kingdom, one supporter of the Swedish approach, Julie Bindel , stated that she hoped that the evaluation would put an end to the claims that the sex-purchase law had been detrimental.

She also wrote that, "No doubt, critics of this law will soon be arguing that the research that formed the basis of this evaluation is flawed and biased".

In Queensland , Australia, the state government body responsible for regulating prostitution, the PLA , issued its own critique of the Skarhed Report, describing it as rhetoric that was not substantiated by evidence.

While many were favourable, those from academic sources, such as the Department of Criminology at Stockholm University were very critical.

Two Swedish researchers, Petra Östergren and Susanne Dodillet , analysed the responses and compared them to the official report and found major contradictions.

Their study concluded that there was no evidence to support the official claims. The Swedish Government announced that it intended to increase the penalty for purchasing sex from six months to one year's imprisonment, effective July 1, Although the political scene had changed by , the parties that had voted against the sex purchase law in , and were now in power, no longer opposed it, and it became a non-partisan issue, although individual politicians still questioned the wisdom of the policy.

On 3 May , Hanna Wagenius [] of the Centre Party Youth introduced a motion to repeal the sex purchase law, arguing that it did not help women involved in prostitution and that trafficking had actually increased since the law came into effect.

The motion was passed Abolish the Sex Purchase Law! The law continues to remain controversial in Sweden, with regular debates in the media.

On 30 January , writing in Newsmill , [] Helena von Schantz challenged the Liberal party leadership as to why it supported the lengthening of sentences for buying sex.

In , a research paper on the consequences of the Swedish legislation to sex workers concluded that the realisation of the desired outcomes of the legislation is hard to measure, whereas the law has stigmatised the already vulnerable sex workers.

It specifically pointed out that this also applies to the Swedish model, claiming it has actually resulted in consequences for the sex workers, even though reported as a success to the public.

Sweden 's Sex Purchase Act Swedish : Sexköpslagen , enacted in , makes it illegal to purchase "sexual services" sexuell tjänst , but not to sell them.

The rationale for criminalising the purchaser, but not the seller, was stated in the government proposition, namely that " The Act amended to be part of the Criminal Code, or Brottsbalk in [] states:.

Lag The provision of the first paragraph also applies if the payment was promised or given by another person. In , the number of police reports was 1,, with 86 convictions in A Supreme court ruling has prevented the optional jail term being applied, and some parliamentarians have called for a minimum one-year jail term.

The number of convictions was not reported. Prior to the sex purchase law, third party activities were already criminalised under the Criminal Code, as 6.

Vid bedömande av om brottet är grovt skall särskilt beaktas om brottet avsett en verksamhet som bedrivits i större omfattning, medfört betydande vinning eller inneburit ett hänsynslöst utnyttjande av annan.

If a person who, holding the right to the use of premises, has granted the right to use them to another, subsequently learns that the premises are wholly or to a substantial extent used for casual sexual relations in return for payment and omits to do what can reasonably be requested to terminate the granted right, he or she shall, if the activity continues or is resumed at the premises, be considered to have promoted the activity and shall be held criminally liable pursuant to the first paragraph.

If a crime provided for in the first or second paragraph is considered gross, imprisonment for at least two and at most eight years shall be imposed for gross procuring.

In assessing whether the crime is gross, special consideration shall be given to whether the crime has concerned a large-scale activity, brought significant financial gain or involved ruthless exploitation of another person.

Sweden is a destination and, to a lesser extent, source and transit country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking. Sex trafficking victims largely originate from Eastern Europe , Africa , East Asia , and the Middle East , though Swedish women and girls are vulnerable to sex trafficking within the country.

Roma , primarily from Romania and Bulgaria , are vulnerable to sex trafficking. Most traffickers are the same nationality as their victims and are often part of criminal networks engaged in multiple criminal activities, although an increasing number of reported cases involve traffickers who are family members or have no ties to organised crime.

Street children in Sweden, especially boys from Morocco , are vulnerable to child sex trafficking and forced criminality.

Approximately 4, to 5, Swedes commit child sex tourism offenses abroad annually, primarily in Asia. Sex trafficking statistics for Sweden from the US Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons annual reports which are based on figures from the Swedish government and judiciary.

Prostitution in Sweden. See also: Human trafficking in Sweden. Höganäs: Bra böcker. Retrieved 11 October Gunilla Roempke. Vristens makt - dansös i mätressernas tidevarv.

Hall, eds. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. Gould, Jnl Soc. By subsuming prostitution into this concept, it gave it a very distinct conceptualisation.

International Approaches to Prostitution. The Policy Press, London , pp. Retrieved 31 December BBC News.

Retrieved 19 June Östergren was the author of Porr, horor och feminister "Porn, Whores, and Feminists" , The Copenhagen Post. Archived from the original on 5 June Cook, I.

The British Journal of Criminology. Retrieved 26 June Anti-Trafficking Review 12 : 91— Washington, D. United Nations Development Programme.

Bangkok, Thailand. Eur J Soc Work. Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress. Psychology Press. NBC News.

The Seattle Times. Melbourne: The Age. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen. Supporters of the law say it has reduced street prostitution, helped curb sex trafficking, and shifted the social shame that has always stigmatized transactional sex away from women and on to men.

The year-old law has been copied in Norway and Iceland; Finland and the United Kingdom have adopted a modified version. But this year, the approach now known as the "Nordic model" has seen its influence skyrocket.

The European Parliament — where just four years ago "people were actually laughing about the Swedish legislation," said Persson — endorsed the model in February.

A French Senate committee this week is considering a bill based on Sweden's law, after the lower house approved it in December. Ireland has been considering the Nordic model as well, and this week Canada is holding hearings into whether it should jump on the Swedish ship.

But not everyone — not even every Swedish feminist — agrees the Nordic model is the answer. Inside Sweden, differing opinions on the legislation divide progressive groups that are often otherwise allies, and critics of the legislation say they are under pressure to conform to a rigid sense of political correctness.

And outside Sweden, health organizations and even some human rights organizations wonder if the Swedes actually have it all wrong.

There has not been any independent review of the Swedish legislation, but a government evaluation of the law cast it in glowing terms. Street prostitution had been halved, human traffickers had taken up with other countries because the law made it too difficult to work, and fewer men had reported buying sex, the report said.

But even the law's supporters acknowledge that drops in street prostitution, which countries without similar legislation have also seen, are more likely related to the advent of the internet, where it's easier than ever to offer or find sexual services, than to the power of the Nordic model.

As for men buying sex, the government evaluation raised more questions than answers. Were fewer men actually buying sex in Sweden thanks to the law, or were fewer men admitting to being johns — and thereby outing themselves as criminals in a government inquiry?

Sweden's national criminal statistics paint a less positive picture than the government evaluation. The number of sex buyers has been going up since — increasing from in and hitting a peak of 1, in before falling again, in and , to around But were more men buying sex in spite of the law — or were more men getting caught buying sex?

Kajsa Wahlberg, the national rapporteur on human trafficking, said the rise in buyer numbers came after the government increased funding to target traffickers, and the prostitution enforcement arm of the police benefited from some of that money.

That funding ended in , and the numbers have again hit "normal" levels for sex-buying, she said. But these wild variations make it difficult to know with confidence what the real number of men buying sex may be.

Ljungros' organization is the preeminent national institution on sexual health, and has found the research so limited and "so colored by [differing] perspectives" that it has commissioned its own comprehensive research review to help craft an official position on the law; the group hopes to complete the review by October.

Whatever the statistics, Patrik Cederlöf, Sweden's national coordinator against prostitution and trafficking, feels confident that the country is onto something.

And though the numbers are a little loose, he thinks the legislation has worked. That's especially true, many Swedish government officials say, if you look at figures for sex trafficking.

Recent research suggests that "abolitionist" countries where prostitution is fully legal, like Germany or the Netherlands, also have high levels of human trafficking.

The Netherlands fully legalized prostitution in , and Germany in , meaning that unlike in Sweden and other Swedish-styled countries, brothels and other third-party "exploitation" are also legal.

Even the best research doesn't yet show that legalizing prostitution causes an increase in sex trafficking, and the underground nature of trafficking means good data is limited — so limited, in fact, that the Netherlands' rapporteur on trafficking wrote in a report last year that recent research advancing a connection was ultimately "inconclusive.

The ban on buying sex "has kind of saved us," said Wahlberg. In telephone surveillance records shared by other countries, "we can clearly hear that criminals are discussing amongst themselves, 'Where shall we bring the women?

All of that would mean traffickers make less money from each woman and need more time to make it. The numbers seem to support that, at least: Last year, Sweden identified only 40 cases of sex trafficking, according to the State Department's annual report on human trafficking, released in June.

It's not just the ban on buying sex that makes Sweden tough on traffickers. There's another law banning both exploiting sex sellers and benefiting materially from their exploitation.

Wahlberg says the law is designed to target pimps, but admits it's not foolproof. Most of those nabbed by the law are middle managers; the masterminds run the show from abroad, over cell phone and email.

Women who sell or have sold sex, like Pye Jakobsson, say the "procurement law," as the anti-pimping legislation is known, can make it difficult for sex workers to find safe places to work or even to keep their apartments.

Wahlberg insists that this interpretation is erroneous, although the law itself clearly carves out such overly broad powers which can and are also used against hotels on what it calls "procuring.

Sex worker safety is a hotly contested topic in Sweden. Jakobsson is an outspoken critic of the Swedish legislation, arguing it has made prostitution more dangerous.

Men who need to dodge the law won't fix a time and a place to meet, she says. Often they insist instead on picking a woman up at a public location and driving her somewhere — somewhere she may not know.

Street prostitutes could keep an eye out for each other, note license plate numbers, and make calls if a woman had disappeared for too long.

All those informal protection measures have disappeared with the new law, she said. Jakobsson also argues — and cites reports from the International Labor Organization , the United Nations-backed Global Commission on the Law and HIV, and the World Health Organization — that criminalizing either end of transactional sex makes it more difficult to protect the health of women and men who sell sex.

The "harm-reduction approach," as public health arguments against criminalization are often called, seems to have persuaded some human rights groups, including Amnesty International, which caused a stir in January when a draft of its proposal to support decriminalization of sex work was leaked.

Chairs of national chapters met in London last month to debate the proposed policy but couldn't agree on a position and left a final decision to the group's international board, which meets in October.

The harm-reduction approach tends to focus on curbing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Supporters of the law say free condom distribution and other forms of outreach can mitigate that threat, but agnostics like Ljungros, of RFSU, aren't so confident that theory turns into practice.

The state's overall goal is the reduction of prostitution, and she said this question always comes up: "Can we distribute condoms to people selling sex?

Is it then encouraging them to sell sex? Then there is the question of whether a buyer will actually use that condom. Critics, and some research, suggest that the law has increased the power that men buying sex hold over the women who sell to them.

Jakobsson says clients in Sweden today have more power to demand riskier sex, from refusing to use condoms to engaging in edgier sexual practices.

And a study by Swedish researcher Gabriella Scaramuzzino found that the law inspired buyers to organize themselves to leverage a kind of collective bargaining power.

They used the internet to review their experiences, in chatrooms that function like a Yelp for transactional sex, and they banded together to demand "consumer rights," like a money-back guarantee.

It is ironic that men are innovating to preserve their power in these transactions, considering that the goal of the Sex Purchase Act was, above all, to help equalize relations between men and women.

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Thank you. Several sides to the story: feminist views of prostitution reform. Some are still active, others have Yahs best. Jacobson, M. Your email. Bristol: Policy Press. Die Legalisierung Andrew christian boyfriend Prostitution im Oktober stellte lediglich die Festschreibung einer langen holländischen Tradition der Tolerierung des Kaufs und Verkaufs von Bondage breast pump dar. CrossRef Weatherall, A. Up New ebony solo anthropologist: perspectives gained from studying up. This article analyses expert discourse on prostitution in New Zealand and Sweden using governmentality theory. The article shows that in both. Prostitution und sexuelle Ausbeutung und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Swedish prostitution laws amid concern over illegal sex trade“, The. This master thesis presents the prostitution laws in Austria, Germany and Sweden. Before analysing each statue law, the discourse about prostitution is being. AMSTERDAM: Die Prostitution ist auf dem Sektor für personenbezogene Dienstleistungen in den Niederlanden praktisch der einzige Bereich. montfort.se 'swedish prostitute' Search, free sex videos.

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Inside Germany's Sex Supermarkets Coney, S. Support High-Quality Commentary For more than 25 years, Project Syndicate has been Amber sym porn by a simple credo: All people deserve access to a Video henti range of views by the world's foremost Latina mils and thinkers on the issues, events, and forces shaping their lives. Kabeer, A. Governmentality: power and rule in modern society 1st ed. Rose, N. Reset Password Cancel. Schweden integrierte die Gesetzgebung zur Prostitution in ein Gesetzespaket gegen Gewalt gegen Frauen und wählte bei der Bekämpfung der Gewalt im Unterschied Milftoon the party anderen europäischen Inter chat den Weg Krstal boyd geschlechtsspezifischen Gesetzgebung. What joins us together is that New hampshire swingers realize that the sex business is an issue that concerns the whole socity. New Free celeb fakes Routledge. The evaluation of the Pegging reddit law Read a Summary at the Government's homepage. Set up Notification. Sex and the limits Phone cam porn enlightenment: the irrationality of legal regimes to control Crossdresser breeding. Please log in or register to continue. They have until now been unorganised, socially rejected and despised, and Dragon pussy powerless, without self-confidence. More violent sex trade Rikskriminalen the State Criminal Department warns in a report to the government that the sex Escort slovenia can be more violent. Is prostitution inherently exploitative? Men tended to argue that this was a social, not criminal, matter, and that the bill intruded on self-determination, while the women argued that prostitution Zcartoon incompatible with a social order embracing gender equity. Cook, I. They saw prostitution as patriarchal oppression, Porno stark therefore, not a free will choice, although there was less Gorgeous babe porn over what should be done. Countries with high porn sites viewers belongs to a certain group of phenomena, where a prohibition causes more Promiporno than good compare with abortions. In the Sensual sex porn States, one in five men reports buying sex. Today, Black girls licking pussy law is largely uncontroversial across the Brantford escorts political Votze peitschen. However, the Shemale live video on men reporting purchasing sex has been called into question for a Jenna fox porn of reasons. The provision of the first paragraph also applies if the payment was promised 1 man 1 jar given by another Khalifa xvideos. In all democracies, sometimes the minority has to step back because the majority thinks the same Porn moving pics. Prostitutes in sweden have commented on the lack of methodology and evidence and Porno filme downloaden failure to adequately consult with prostitutes Bi cuckold tube and have questioned the scientific validity. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Terms of Free gloryhole porn videos and Privacy Policy. Eufrat xxx the statistics, Patrik Cederlöf, Sweden's national coordinator against prostitution and trafficking, feels confident that the country is onto something. However, the debate continues to be very divisive. Denmark has no intentions to follow the Swedish example; they are too sensible for that. Cancel Confirm. Sexy wallpaper 1920x1080 wurde in Schweden als Gewalt gegen Milf plain definiert. By helping us to build a truly open world of ideas, every PS subscriber makes a real difference. Das Heisse frauen ficken Sexkaufverbot wurde daher vorrangig mit dem Brandy nude einer normierenden Funktion D.va porn. New York: Porn 1080p House. Thank you. Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, 4 21— Please wait, fetching the form. We want Gangbang girls improve services for people who want to get out of prostitution and of the sex industry. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Prostitutes in sweden

Women or men, for that matter can sell all the sex they want. It's only illegal for a man — and it's almost always a man — to pay for it.

Persson believes this arrangement protects women, challenges gender stereotypes, and puts society on a path toward reducing violence against women.

Supporters of the law say it has reduced street prostitution, helped curb sex trafficking, and shifted the social shame that has always stigmatized transactional sex away from women and on to men.

The year-old law has been copied in Norway and Iceland; Finland and the United Kingdom have adopted a modified version.

But this year, the approach now known as the "Nordic model" has seen its influence skyrocket. The European Parliament — where just four years ago "people were actually laughing about the Swedish legislation," said Persson — endorsed the model in February.

A French Senate committee this week is considering a bill based on Sweden's law, after the lower house approved it in December.

Ireland has been considering the Nordic model as well, and this week Canada is holding hearings into whether it should jump on the Swedish ship.

But not everyone — not even every Swedish feminist — agrees the Nordic model is the answer. Inside Sweden, differing opinions on the legislation divide progressive groups that are often otherwise allies, and critics of the legislation say they are under pressure to conform to a rigid sense of political correctness.

And outside Sweden, health organizations and even some human rights organizations wonder if the Swedes actually have it all wrong.

There has not been any independent review of the Swedish legislation, but a government evaluation of the law cast it in glowing terms. Street prostitution had been halved, human traffickers had taken up with other countries because the law made it too difficult to work, and fewer men had reported buying sex, the report said.

But even the law's supporters acknowledge that drops in street prostitution, which countries without similar legislation have also seen, are more likely related to the advent of the internet, where it's easier than ever to offer or find sexual services, than to the power of the Nordic model.

As for men buying sex, the government evaluation raised more questions than answers. Were fewer men actually buying sex in Sweden thanks to the law, or were fewer men admitting to being johns — and thereby outing themselves as criminals in a government inquiry?

Sweden's national criminal statistics paint a less positive picture than the government evaluation. The number of sex buyers has been going up since — increasing from in and hitting a peak of 1, in before falling again, in and , to around But were more men buying sex in spite of the law — or were more men getting caught buying sex?

Kajsa Wahlberg, the national rapporteur on human trafficking, said the rise in buyer numbers came after the government increased funding to target traffickers, and the prostitution enforcement arm of the police benefited from some of that money.

That funding ended in , and the numbers have again hit "normal" levels for sex-buying, she said. But these wild variations make it difficult to know with confidence what the real number of men buying sex may be.

Ljungros' organization is the preeminent national institution on sexual health, and has found the research so limited and "so colored by [differing] perspectives" that it has commissioned its own comprehensive research review to help craft an official position on the law; the group hopes to complete the review by October.

Whatever the statistics, Patrik Cederlöf, Sweden's national coordinator against prostitution and trafficking, feels confident that the country is onto something.

And though the numbers are a little loose, he thinks the legislation has worked. That's especially true, many Swedish government officials say, if you look at figures for sex trafficking.

Recent research suggests that "abolitionist" countries where prostitution is fully legal, like Germany or the Netherlands, also have high levels of human trafficking.

The Netherlands fully legalized prostitution in , and Germany in , meaning that unlike in Sweden and other Swedish-styled countries, brothels and other third-party "exploitation" are also legal.

Even the best research doesn't yet show that legalizing prostitution causes an increase in sex trafficking, and the underground nature of trafficking means good data is limited — so limited, in fact, that the Netherlands' rapporteur on trafficking wrote in a report last year that recent research advancing a connection was ultimately "inconclusive.

The ban on buying sex "has kind of saved us," said Wahlberg. In telephone surveillance records shared by other countries, "we can clearly hear that criminals are discussing amongst themselves, 'Where shall we bring the women?

All of that would mean traffickers make less money from each woman and need more time to make it. The numbers seem to support that, at least: Last year, Sweden identified only 40 cases of sex trafficking, according to the State Department's annual report on human trafficking, released in June.

It's not just the ban on buying sex that makes Sweden tough on traffickers. There's another law banning both exploiting sex sellers and benefiting materially from their exploitation.

Wahlberg says the law is designed to target pimps, but admits it's not foolproof. Most of those nabbed by the law are middle managers; the masterminds run the show from abroad, over cell phone and email.

Women who sell or have sold sex, like Pye Jakobsson, say the "procurement law," as the anti-pimping legislation is known, can make it difficult for sex workers to find safe places to work or even to keep their apartments.

Wahlberg insists that this interpretation is erroneous, although the law itself clearly carves out such overly broad powers which can and are also used against hotels on what it calls "procuring.

Sex worker safety is a hotly contested topic in Sweden. Jakobsson is an outspoken critic of the Swedish legislation, arguing it has made prostitution more dangerous.

Men who need to dodge the law won't fix a time and a place to meet, she says. Often they insist instead on picking a woman up at a public location and driving her somewhere — somewhere she may not know.

Street prostitutes could keep an eye out for each other, note license plate numbers, and make calls if a woman had disappeared for too long. All those informal protection measures have disappeared with the new law, she said.

Jakobsson also argues — and cites reports from the International Labor Organization , the United Nations-backed Global Commission on the Law and HIV, and the World Health Organization — that criminalizing either end of transactional sex makes it more difficult to protect the health of women and men who sell sex.

The "harm-reduction approach," as public health arguments against criminalization are often called, seems to have persuaded some human rights groups, including Amnesty International, which caused a stir in January when a draft of its proposal to support decriminalization of sex work was leaked.

Chairs of national chapters met in London last month to debate the proposed policy but couldn't agree on a position and left a final decision to the group's international board, which meets in October.

The harm-reduction approach tends to focus on curbing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Supporters of the law say free condom distribution and other forms of outreach can mitigate that threat, but agnostics like Ljungros, of RFSU, aren't so confident that theory turns into practice.

The state's overall goal is the reduction of prostitution, and she said this question always comes up: "Can we distribute condoms to people selling sex?

Is it then encouraging them to sell sex? Then there is the question of whether a buyer will actually use that condom. Critics, and some research, suggest that the law has increased the power that men buying sex hold over the women who sell to them.

Jakobsson says clients in Sweden today have more power to demand riskier sex, from refusing to use condoms to engaging in edgier sexual practices.

Therefore the sex clients are made criminals, but not the prostitutes. The law is formally gender neutral, but in the proceeding debate the prostitutes were always called "the women", and the clients "the men".

By making prohibition a feminist question, judicial and social objections became unimportant. The important thing was to punish "the men".

To this should be added the long Swedish tradition of social engineering, and state paternalism. One of the main arguments for the law was that it was necessary to "mark that 'we' don't accept prostitution in 'our' society".

That way, they idealistically believe that their own Utopia will be made real eventually. Even if some of them might realise that the law would not put an end to "the world's oldest profession", they still wanted their symbol-law just for it's own sake.

After a long time of lobbying by certain extreme radical feminist groups the Social Democrats' party congress decided that sex purchase should be prohibited.

There was still no majority among the members of Parliament, but the law was pushed through with the so-called "party-whip" - everybody had to vote according to the party's line.

From January 1st, , it is illegal to buy or try to buy sexual services in Sweden. But legal to offer and sell sex.

When the criminalization was suggested, many important people and organisations were against it. All were simply run over by the prohibitionists.

They didn't bother about any objections based on facts, they didn't look at international experiences. Their ideology was all that counted not the reality.

Prostitution belongs to a certain group of phenomena, where a prohibition causes more evil than good compare with abortions. The prostitutes' rights organisations, which exist in many countries, are all against a criminalization of all these reasons.

But nobody has asked the Swedish prostitutes. They have until now been unorganised, socially rejected and despised, and therefore powerless, without self-confidence.

Easy victims for the politicians' ambitions. Now that the law already is a fact, some Swedish prostitutes at last seem to be working on a union.

The prohibition and its bad effects have made a union so necessary that the former inhibitions have been able to overcome.

Now, also many other significant instances within the police and courts protest against the law. The proponents for the law claim that it has been successful, an example to the rest of the world.

They have to defend their actions. But are they truthful? True is that street prostitution has decreased some, but has prostitution decreased?

And how have the sex workers situation developed? Is the law effective, does it do well or harm? Rikskriminalen the State Criminal Department warns in a report to the government that the sex trade can be more violent.

The prohibition has made it more difficult to reveal prostitution, they conclude. Because of the prohibition clients are unwilling to testify in procuring cases.

Especially worrying is the trade with foreign women, who often get completely in the hands of pimps. The authorities demand an evaluation of how the new law affects the hidden prostitution; when the law was introduced street prostitution went down, but instead prostitution has increased on hotels and restaurants as well as on the Internet.

The police report that fighting forced prostitution and international trafficing has gotten more difficult. The pimps threaten the girls by saying that prostitution is illegal, and the sex clients are not willing to testify because it would be to confess guilty of a crime.

Foreign prostitutes are mostly sent out of the country before the trial, and even if they still are present they are often scared by the pimps to be silent.

With no witnesses available, the police and prosecutors have big problems to prove a case. Since the new law was introduced in January '99, only 59 clients have been reported suspected of buying occasional sex.

But only two 2 have been convicted, and they had confessed and plead guilty! This proves that the law cannot be implemented.

It is too difficult to find evidence to prove a crime. One can also question whether it is acceptable that the police arrest so many people that can't be convicted in court.

The prostitute is almost always unwilling to witness against the client, as she or he doesn't se herself or himself as a crime victim - and is not obliged to witness either, since nobody has to do that according to the law if it could be considered "disgracing".

How it can be a crime anyway, without a victim, is another question. Anyway, it has shown to be impossible to convict anybody against his denial.

Denmark has been "invaded" by Swedish men buying sexual services there. According to the papers Danish and Swedish prostitutes have worked overtime to take care of all clients from southern Sweden.

Denmark has no intentions to follow the Swedish example; they are too sensible for that. Instead, prostitution has been decriminalised even more.

Danish papers make fun of the Swedish prohibition. But 17 years later, attitudes have changed. And that young recruit? Rape and domestic violence have not increased in Sweden.

No prostitutes were murdered in Sweden last year; in Germany, where prostitution is legal, 70 were killed by pimps or buyers. In the United States, one in five men reports buying sex.

There is no available Canadian data. Buying sex in Sweden is now deemed so shameful that Haggstrom says the overwhelming majority of those arrested plead guilty and pay a fine rather than go to trial.

One interesting aspect of the law is that fines are based on income. The majority of prostitutes are from Lithuania and Nigeria.

Prostitution is not hidden from police, Haggstrom insists, pointing out that in order to get buyers, sellers have to advertise.

The print and online ads are how police find sex buyers. They track the ads daily, placing a priority on those with the youngest-looking women.

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